• Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    What is high blood pressure (also called hypertension)?

    Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the artery. The higher your blood pressure, the harder your heart must work to pump blood to the rest of your body. Without proper treatment, high blood pressure can lead to many cardiovascular problems, including dilated pumping chamber and valvular defects.

    There are two measurements that determine your blood pressure:

    1. Systolic: The systolic number reflects the pressure against the arterial walls immediately after the heart pumps. This is the top number in the reading. For example, if your blood pressure is 120/80 (described as 120 over 80), the systolic measurement is 120.
    2. Diastolic: The diastolic number represents the pressure against the arterial walls when your heart is at rest briefly, between heart beats. This is the bottom number in the reading. Using the same example, if your blood pressure is 120 over 80, the diastolic measurement is 80. 
    Blood Pressure Category Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg) Follow-Up Recommended
    Optimal < 120 < 80 Recheck in 2 years
    Normal < 130 < 85 Recheck in 2 years
    High Normal 130 - 139 85 - 89 Recheck in 1 year
    High Stage 1 (mild) 140 - 159 90 - 99 Confirm within 2 months
    High Stage 2 (moderate) 160 - 179 100 - 109 Evaluate within 1 month
    High Stage 3 (severe) 180 or higher 110 or higher Evaluate immediately

    What are the warning signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?

    In most cases, high blood pressure does not cause any symptoms. Many people assume that it is related to high levels of stress, tension, and nervousness, but the truth is you can be a very relaxed, easy-going person and still have high blood pressure. The only way to know if you are hypertensive is to have your blood pressure checked by your doctor. This should be done routinely. High blood pressure can develop over time, and there are many treatment options available to manage the disease. Prompt treatment can reduce, your risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and congestive heart failure.

    How is high blood pressure detected?

    High blood pressure is detected using a blood pressure monitoring device called a sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure varies constantly; so, if your doctor detects high blood pressure on one occasion, he or she will usually take another couple of readings to ensure the measurement is accurate. You may be asked by your doctor to purchase a home B/P monitoring device.

    What are the treatment options for high blood pressure?

    Your doctor will discuss with you a variety of ways to control and/or lower your blood pressure. As with all cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle changes are sensible, effective ways to reduce your chances of developing cardiovascular disease. To reduce blood pressure in particular, it is essential to:

    • Exercise regularly
    • Stop smoking
    • Eat a well-balanced diet low in salt, fat and cholesterol
    • Manage stress levels
    • Control your weight
    • Reduce caffeine and other stimulants

    In some cases, lifestyle changes will not achieve the required results. In this situation, your doctor may discuss medications and/or procedures that can help to reduce your blood pressure.


    • Adrenergic Receptive Blockers (Beta blockers) help regulate the heart beat and decrease oxygen demand, lower B/P, protect against heart attack and heart failure
    • Diuretics remove excess fluid from the body
    • Calcium channel blockers decrease heart contractility and spasms, dilates arteries, help to treat high B/P and angina
    • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow, guard against arteriosclerosis (plaque in the arteries), help strengthen heart muscles, lower B/P
    • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow

    Central Nervous System (CNS) Active Agents reduce nerve activity which can cause B/P to rise