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To open up a peripheral artery that is narrowed or blocked by plaque build-up (atherosclerosis), and to structurally support that opening by permanently placing a metal stent within the artery.
A stent is a mesh-like metal cylinder. Stent placement is often part of a PTA (angioplasty) procedure. As in angioplasty, a catheter is inserted into an artery—usually in the groin. The catheter is advanced to the blocked peripheral artery, and a series of x-ray pictures are taken to clearly visualize the artery that is narrowed. Then a balloon-tipped catheter is advanced into the narrowed artery. Inside the artery, the balloon is inflated and deflated several times, compressing the plaque against the artery wall and widening the artery so blood flow improves. This balloon-tipped catheter is removed, and a separate balloon-tipped catheter, with a stent attached, is advanced to the area that was just opened. The balloon is inflated, expanding the stent into the inner layer of the artery. The balloon is removed, but the stent stays in place, acting as a scaffold to keep the artery open. The inner lining of the artery will then heal around the stent.
X-ray pictures are repeated, and if the stent has been successfully placed, the catheters are removed. Pressure is applied to the puncture site (to stop bleeding) while the patient rests quietly.
In the Catheterization Lab or the Interventional Radiology Suite.
Angioplasty with stent placement usually takes 1-2 hours.